Collapse How Societies Chose to Fail or Succeed Epub

Collapse How Societies Chose to Fail or Succeed [PDF / EPUB] Collapse How Societies Chose to Fail or Succeed Brilliant illuminating and immensely absorbing Collapse is destined to take its place as one of the essential books of our time raising the urgent uestion How can our world best avoid committing ecolo Brilliant illuminating and immensely absorbing Collapse Societies Chose PDF/EPUB Â is destined to take its place as one of the essential books of our time raising the urgent uestion How can our world best avoid committing ecological suicideIn his million copy bestseller Guns Germs and Steel Jared Diamond examined how andwhy Western civilizations developed the technologies and immunities Collapse How MOBI :ß that allowed them to dominate much of the world Now in this brilliant companion volume Diamond probes the other side of the euation What caused some of the great civilizations of the past to collapse into ruin and what can we learn from their fates As in Guns Germs and Steel Diamond weaves an all How Societies Chose PDF/EPUB ç encompassing global thesis through a series of fascinating historical cultural narratives Moving from the Polynesian cultures on Easter Island to the flourishing American civilizations of the Anasazi and the Maya and finally to the doomed Viking colony on Greenland Diamond traces the fundamental pattern of catastrophe Environmental damage climate change rapid population growth and unwise How Societies Chose to Fail ePUB Ñ political choices were all factors in the demise of these societies but other societies found solutions and persisted Similar problems face us today and have already brought disaster to Rwanda and Haiti even as China and Australia are trying to cope in innovative ways Despite our own society's apparently inexhaustible wealth and unrivaled political power ominous warning signs have begun to emerge even in ecologically robust How Societies Chose to Fail ePUB Ñ areas like Montana.

10 thoughts on “Collapse How Societies Chose to Fail or Succeed

  1. says:

    Jared Diamond looks at several societies that have collapsed as a result of misusing their natural resources plus a couple Tokugawa period Japan is the star example that miraculously managed to pull back from the brink At the end he also talks about some present day cases where we still don't know what will happen The one my thoughts keep returning to is medieval Greenland which Diamond discusses in a long and detailed chapter Settled in the 11th century by Vikings originally from Norway the colonists brought with them their whole way of life which was heavily organized around dairy farming There is an eerie description of a huge barn with room for 80 head of cattle; the ruins can still be seen today The colony survived for several hundred years and was then wiped out to the last man by worsening weather and the decline in the European market for narwhale ivoryBut here's the really odd thing The colonists never ate fish despite the fact that it formed the staple diet of the indigenous Greenland Eskimos Diamond says that every single archaeologist who's studied the settlement starts off convinced that there must have been some kind of mistake How is it possible that these hardy intelligent people could have failed to adapt their diet in such an obvious way? But the evidence from middens is apparently rock solid For whatever reason they would not make use of this plentiful natural resource which could easily have saved them; they perished insteadIncomprehensible isn't it? Needless to say our own society's reluctance to invest than a token amount of money in developing cheap solar power is different The two cases are in no way comparableJust back from Australia where I had several illuminating discussions with various people about solar energy Australia is almost certainly the country where it would work best Population density is very low and there is abundant sunlight The technology already exists to build cheap solar power stationsSo why don't they do it? Apparently building the power stations in desert areas isn't economically viable unless national resources are diverted to connect them to the national grid But the powerful coal lobby hates the idea and has blocked it at every turn Neither left wing nor right wing politicians dare oppose themYou often see individuals doing this kind of thing even though a given course of action is evidently going to benefit them leave their abusive partner stop binge drinking they are unable to summon the willpower to uit It's interesting and remarkable that whole societies exhibit the same behaviorAs previously noted Tony Abbott is really doing everything he can to consolidate his position as the new Dubya

  2. says:

    Fascinating work by the same author who won a Pulitzer prize for Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies This exhaustive study in Malthusian economics as applied to several societies in history that have failed such as the Easter Islanders and Greenland Norse details the thematic traits common to each example His chapter on Easter Island made me think of Thor Heyerdahl's work thereMost notably is how deforestation and imprudent population control applies to modern societies in trouble as well I find myself thinking about this work freuently his ideas resonate with our times mirroring as they do and as he shows us with failed societies of the past Haunting and thought provoking and a damn fine book 2018 addendum it is a testament to great literature that a reader recalls the work years later and this is a book about which I freuently think When I think about this book I think about the Greenland Norse and the Polynesians Great book

  3. says:

    Terrifying how often the pattern of exploitation of nature and decline of cultures has repeated itselfThe fitting additional book to Diamonds work Guns Germs and Steel offers past and present scenarios of various environmental conditions and the mastery or miserable failure of the peoples trying to master the challenge Especially in isolated societies where the socio cultural aspect is much emphasized by the absence of invaders or other disturbing factors the processes leading to the formation of today's ruins or prosperous cities are describedAs a classic positive example Iceland which counters the desolation of the climate zone and infertility of barren landscapes with strong community feeling and intelligent farming can be named Other isolated island states such as Easter Island and other ghost islands have been caught in the throes of social degeneration and driven to self destruction by meaningless prestigious or religiously driven construction projects civil wars exploitation of natural resources to the collapse of the ecosystem or a bit of this and that mixed up togetherOften there was an old tradition of proven survival strategies on the failed island states but their practice was mostly forgotten or ignored in the course of the delusion resulting in the collapse of the social system and the extinction of the tribeHow the authors' theses could be applied to the history of the development of significant continental nations would be highly enjoyable This would probably be far too far reaching and hypothetical because of the added complexity which is why Diamond didn´t mention it but it would make a great new research area The factors that are taken into account such as climate change hostile neighbors environmental destruction breaking an alliance or loss of support from friendly neighbors and as a decisive factor the reaction of the population and ruling caste already present a high potential for complexity Therefore it would no longer be concluded with scientific seriousness by introducing additional factors such as in the case of the Roman Empire or other fallen empiresIt is noteworthy that the scheme of slow degeneration through creeping degradation of cultural as well as naturally given resources can strike both relatively primitive almost Stone Age societies as unexpectedly as highly developed and militarily nearly unbeatable empires Despite the admonishers of the respective time fanaticism and megalomania became the leading motive and in hindsight apparent nonsensical and self destructive mechanisms leaked into politics until it was accepted as usual and criticism was negated until the downfallAt this point it makes sense to see the accordances with the present and to illustrate the classic repetition of the history using various examples Thus even after dozens of vivid and illustrative learning examples from the history of what one should avoid as a state the same actually precisely recognizable mistakes are committed todayWhether it is negligent irreversible environmental destruction political destabilization until to the collapse of state and social order including genocide and targeted destruction of infrastructure until relapse into archaic forms of government and theocracy there is a wide range of patternsTheir use seems to be so desirable to humanity that repeated attempts can no longer be construed as just perseverance But instead as ignorance and incompetence of elites to whom a brief reading of any historical atlas could give numerous examples of the futility of their present action The big and anxious uestion after completing the book remains whether we as a society may have not jumped on the wrong train for far too long One that not only directs individual islands regions or states as described in the book but the entire planet and the civilization living on it on a path into the abyssA wiki walk can be as refreshing to the mind as a walk through nature in this completely overrated real life outside books

  4. says:

    The Pulitzer prize winning Guns Germs and Steel by this dude forever changed the way I look at history And believe me I am a history buff of sorts so this means a lot Unfortunately Collapse fails to measure up to that classicThe real problem with Collapse isn't the research that goes into the thesis or even the soundness of the thesis itself though there are some ualms I have about how politically unstable Mongolia is or basing his analysis of cod fisheries on a single popular accunt The central contention that population explosion interdependency unsustainable harvest adverse cultural values and about 8 other factors contributed to a society's collapse is innocuous enough though admittedly somewhat vague Rather the problem is that Diamond is so intent upon clearly and explicitly detailing every freaking argument to paint a convincing picture of the ancientmedieval societies or the current polluting industries that he often loses sight of his larger arguments For instance his discussion of Viking Greenland v Iceland is insightful but whether it warrants nearly 100 pages in a 500 page book I doubt The same could be said of his discussion of modern Australia; China in contrast gets really short shrift He goes at pain to explicate the archaeological evidence by which we understand the Anasazi collapse but here too he gets a little repetitive and locuacious For instance the logic behind dendrochronolgy and salinization were explained than once to elucidate yet another nuance Indeed here Diamond the scientist persistently gets in the way of Diamond the popular writer Were it not for his stellar writing skills this would have been even of a chore to readApart from the lack of effective editing Collapse suffers from Diamond's penchant to almost bend over backward to point out that he is not engaged in a crude form of Environmental determinism whereby the significance of cultural and political events are misleadingly downplayed He certainly didn't do this in Guns Germs and Steel but many people including the NY Times accuse him of it Nevertheless Diamond was sufficiently sensitive to this interpretation as well as eager to show that we can prevent environmental catastrophe that he repeats this ad nauseum and IMHO belabors this point to being beyond repetitive The cumulative effect of all these shortcomings is that the book ends up presenting really rather very little that is new argues persistently against straw man hypotheses and is informative but almost in a trivial sense At 520 odd dense pages this is a lot to ask of a reader and it is a pity that this simply does not measure up to Diamond's earlier works

  5. says:

    This is a major work Diamond looks in detail at the factors at play in the demise of civilizations in human history using a wide range of examples He offers a framework in which to structure the analysis and looks in great detail at possible and in many cases certain reasons why various societies collapsed He is not a one note analyst All problems do not fit the same mold There is considerable nuance and common sense brought to bear on this examination Foolishness plays a part greed corruption But just as freuently the actors behave rationally Maybe they were unaware or could not possibly be aware of the larger implications of their actions Maybe the land in which they lived was ill suited to large numbers of humans Maybe changes in climate made what seemed a reasonable place a death trap Clearly an analysis of why societies failed in the past with particular attention to environmental issues has direct relevance to our world today For example Polynesian islands that were dependant on resources from other islands collapsed when their import supply dried up That has relevance to oil dependant first world nations today for example Diamond goes out of his way to make a case that business is business and they are not in the business of performing charity or taking responsibility for the common weal He does point out that some businesses have been instrumental in forcing improvements in producers He cited Home Depot and BP among others although I expect he might have second thoughts about the latter's net impact I found the book to be extremely eye opening and informative It was a long slow read but well worth the effort It makes my short list of must read for anyone seriously interested in current affairs

  6. says:

    I considered giving this book 4 instead of 5 stars simply because it can be over dense in its detail and the style can be rather dry but then I figured that says about my stamina and laziness than about the uality of the book so the book gets 5 and I get a 4 for effort We're all winnersSo despite the headline grabbing title the author Jared Diamond a cross between an Amish garden gnome and avuncular Glastonbury festival supremo if you go by his picture tries its darndest to avoid sensationalism and the author opts instead for what is sorely needed in the environmental debate sober empirical analysis But don't let that put you off once you put your brain into the right gear this book can be completely consuming and fascinating and the message and lessons it gives are electrifyingDiamond examines in turn a number of societies ancient and modern successful or unsuccessful and forensically examines what were the factors in their collapse or survival before turning to our modern global society to ask what lessons we can apply from those past cases to the predicament we face today We learn about the Easter Islanders about whom one of Diamond's pupils asked What was going through the mind of the man who chopped down the last tree on the island? the Anasazi the Maya the Greenland Norse and Greenland Inuit modern day Australia and Montana shogun ruled Japan and othersHe identifies common environmental problems which collapsed societies have tended to share deforestation and soil erosion as well as resource depletion cropping up again and again as well as cultural factors such as systems of government and contact with other societies He cites some incredible studies such as the examination of ancient middens of crystallised rodents' piss and of pond sediments to show how we can unravel the mysteries of some of these collapses by using the study of for example pollen in sediment or animal bones in middens to paint a vivid picture of climates deforestation and diets at precise times in these societies' stories It was this uite academic precision that gave me a uiet thrill and which gives this book its calm authorityDiamond ends by looking at our modern global society and assessing its chances of overcoming the sheer number breadth scale and interconnectedness of the ecological problems facing us and although he insists he is an optimist and argues that our globalised society gives us advantages in finding solutions as well as giving us zero escape routes if we fail by the time you finish reading you feel that as a planet we've got a sheer cliff face to climb and his optimism sounds a little disingenuous But educating yourself to understand these issues is a necessary step to doing your bit and this book will certainly arm you with the sobering facts If only the debate were always conducted in these civilised in the best sense of the word terms

  7. says:

    The halfway point reviewOne uestion I've been wrestling with as I read as I watch these societies move slightly past sustainability as I read about societal collapse and the suandering of resources by the wealthy and then the inevitable cannibalism that always seems to show up in the last act I keep asking myself how the environment became a political issue There's no uestion that environmental resources aren't infinite yet it seems like the majority of peopleor at least the loudest factioncare less about human life on earth than their own comfort and status Or else how can they justify placing jobs business interests or anything else ahead of the environment in their values?Is it because environmental damage is such a gradual process? If so we need to come up with some way to drive home the importance of creating a sustainable way of living Politicians hedging around environmental issues while placing these issues on the same level of importance as gays in the military is clearly not getting us anywhere Literature on the dangers of global warming and about the human effects on the environment isn't going to get the point across to those who willfully avoid learning about the topic Does the environmental movement need advertisements? More celebrity endorsements? I hate asking rhetorical uestions even if my goal is to generate conversation so my hypothesis without any evidence to support it is YES we need a much fucking better PR department and we need it uickly If we are going to keep the global society from reaching the point of some real collapse we need to change the rhetoric with which we talk about the environment The environment is an abstract out there that doesn't necessarily include human babies or grandchildren The way we abstractly think of the environment makes this separation of humans from their environment easier We need rhetoric that makes it clear that when we speak of the environment what we are really concerned with is the continued ability for humanity to survive on this planet What we're talking about isn't separate from people physically or ethically I'll end my halfway point review by bringing up the personal guilt that reading these pages has reawakened in me Reading about the way the Easter Islanders suandered resources building the tremendous statues and headpieces for the glorification of rich people has reminded me of my own complicity I've always thought of myself as an environmentalist I take the light rail whenever possible recycle eat with an awareness of where my food comes from But even as someone passionate about the environment I've spent several years working at a bank I've spent my time too focused on my own education to dedicate much time to preservationwhich is what I'm complaining about others doing What have I truly done to rebel against a society that places greed and opulence above sustainability? I've found ways to reduce the damage that I inflict but I have done nothing to challenge my society's destructive way of being So what right do I have to climb up on my soap box?

  8. says:

    In Collapse Jared Diamond draws our attention to the following problems which have plagued humanity throughout history1 Deforestation and loss of habitat2 Overhunting3 Overfishing4 Soil degradation5 Water management problems6 Population growth7 Increased per capita impact of people8 Impact of non native speciesAnd now we face four 9 Human caused climate change10 The build up toxic waste11 We're approaching the limits of the Earth's photosynthetic capacity12 Energy shortagesThere are societies that failed to resolve these problems and Diamond's thesis is they collapsed because of itPerhaps the most engaging example of this pattern is Diamond's discussion of the isolated Polynesians on Easter Island They used all of their trees which led to soil erosion which led to food shortages which led to cannibalism We now live in a globalized world but perhaps we should say that we're finally realizing that we live on an island It seems that we have yet to realize the demands we make on our islandIs this a bad time to point out that NASA which apparently costs less per year than the American military spends per year on air conditioning retired its fleet this week?I wish that I could just knock off one or two of those problems from Diamond's list but I can't Many of them are linked so if we fail to respond to one we fail to respond to several At other times we lean too hard on solving one problem and end up causing new problems For example many forests Diamond refers to Montana but I've read about this dynamic elsewhere have been developed as cottage areas so we do not allow fires or any logging The buildup of old forest and underbrush makes for a tinderbox which means that when fires do happen they are massive And putting them out is not free eitherHow do you gather political will to deal with a problem like this? We could try to log sustainably and selectively Jaded by greenwashing environmentalists are unlikely to trust any company Cottage owners are certainly not going to recommend logging or allowing fires of any sort to threaten their investments No politician can gather support so every stakeholder is stuckDiamond further illustrates the role of ecological problems in societal collapses by comparing past societies that collapsed as opposed to declined throughout history In each case he methodically outlines how these societies destroyed themselves by failing to resolve ecological problems It's pretty convincing though I've become aware that archeologists dispute many of his claimsI think there is a common concern for the environment I'm not even 30 so perhaps I can't speak with a great deal of authority on the subject but it feels to me that North America is obsessed with post apocalyptic settings right now in 2011 If there is a spirit of a society that is translated in its literature then I think it's safe to say that the bearded guy holding a the end is nigh sign is finally getting the mainstream audience he dreamed ofIt seems to me the real problem is that it is very difficult to minimize our impact on the environment We can call upon America to lead the way but they can't even manage their debt In fact the societies that Diamond relies on to illustrate that it is possible to limit deforestation tend to be autocratic though so were the societies that Diamond relies on to illustrate failure Now some NGOs have set up certification procedures that identify wood that was harvested sustainably but other corporate commissions have set up their own certification bodies to confuse consumersNevertheless Diamond outlines reasons to be cautiously optimistic before concluding Unfortunately this may have been the least convincing part of CollapseSo I'll close with the cynical words of Danny Archer from Blood DiamondWhen was the last time the world wasn't ending?Usually I find these words very soothing Now I feel like the world always has been ending It's just that until recently humanity could only end one specific part of it at any given time Now we're a global society

  9. says:

    This is an exhaustive and exhausting read Should’ve been tightened up and trimmed down not only did I get tired of the meandering but I got worn down from getting machine gunned with an avalanche of what I considered often superfluous details Still I thought it was very good the historical examples of collapse and also the examples of societies that successfully changed to avoid disaster were interesting It put the contemporary analysisproblems we face in perspective I remember reading Guns Germs Steel and while I enjoyed it Diamond's geographical determinism was tiresome and I suspect overplayed In this book he focuses on environmental stresses and issues playing a role in collapsing societies I think he does a good job in explaining the multitude of factors beyond this arena so it isn’t uite as one tracked and only focused on environmental determinism I think environment is crucial but it’s important to add proper ualifiers and try to not overplay your thesisMy impression is anthropologists really seem to have an ax to grind with Diamond Always interesting to see what people from certain fields have to say about popular books written about their domain especially those books written by someone who isn’t part of their tribe I haven’t read specific critiues of this book just remember some articles I’ve seen where anthropologists have absolutely smashed Diamond for his other work I imagine some of their critiue is right but it seems overly harsh a bit overdone leading me to wonder if they aren’t just trying to protect their turf Anyhow I’m sure in such a huge book as this one covering so much material Diamond made some missteps but I think his overall thesis is ballpark correct and important and the general historical analysis strikes me as solid Given the interwoven nature of the global economy intricate complexity of our systems and rates of environmental destruction and pressures we are applying on environment Diamond readily admits we are facing huge potentially civilization changing downshifts Grave risks weakness or breakdown in one part of the global system can reverberate throughout So it was kind of jarring to me when he states at the end of his book that he is “cautiously optimistic” we can turn things around in regards to preventing environmental breakdowns and catastrophes for global civilization I was a bit surprised by that tbh maybe I was struck by the nonchalance of his optimism especially given his devastating analysis of what we are facing I’m certainly not as sanguine I always kind of hope that hey maybe I’ve just drank too much of that Jonestown Climate ChangeEnvironmental Apocalypse kool aid ha Would love to be magnificently wrong on everything but I’d rather try and see things as they are than try and lie to myself with beautiful illusions I’m just a lay person but my sense given what I’ve read is that we are in big trouble and courting a slowly unfurling disaster There were some great sections I liked the one where he spells out something like a list of 10 reasonsstatements people use to minimize environmental problems This includes people who have magical belief in deux ex machina future tech that will come save us from problems we have or are causing I’m glad he hates this because I hate it it really drives me bonkers the use of this concept is a great way to sidestep any responsibility or accountability for present actions and greenlights continuation of pernicious status uo I do think tech and innovation can be tools to help us but they all have various externalities and can cause new problems of their own plus in regards to environment since the systems are all so interconnected you destroy or damage one aspect it can lead to a grand cascade At that point tech can maybe help minimize issues but it is hard impossible? if damage is too great the unleashed cascade will shudder throughout the systems Good luck putting the genie back in the bottle some changes are irrevocable 6th extinction underway is a good example even the destruction of what can seem an innocuous tiny microorgamisn can completely change the ecosystem with implications for species in that system Diamond also points out another argument people use to justify environmental destruction well the environment is a luxury and we need to do everything we can for our economy which includes destroying the environment The economy is driven by the environment you break the environment or elements of it and you will likely hamstring your economy in various ways Happens again and again And it's not simple I understand the tension in this dynamic because if you are hungry today you need to do whatever it is you can to put food on the table and sometimes that includes destroying the environment which will have long term implications but if you are hungry and desperate you don't have as much luxury to think about or emphasize the long term I’m not sure how I feel about his soft defense of corporations and his emphasis on the consumer I think it annoys me lol He doesn’t give corporations a free pass but he tries to explain why they do what they do He tries to play a balanced view on all this hey corporations have to operate under their prime directive PROFITS at all costs or they will be sued by shareholders if they don’t regardless of damage done to environment community etc He also very much emphasizes consumer ability to exert pressure on companies to shift to environmentally friendly habits I believe this is a good tactic but can also be limited not to mention not all consumers have luxury to shift to environmentally friendly consumption nor the luxury of time to research and learn what those options might be Ultimately I am of the belief one has to reform the systems we are operating in this includes reforming how corporations operate instead of monolithic submission to shareholders I believe in a multi foundational mission for corporations where community workers management shareholders are all taken into consideration This is holistic in my view than the blind submission to shareholders who hold companies and company policystrategy hostage The concept of sustainable living might be a high priority for me but it is very hard given the way the system is set up I still generate a massive amount of trash and use tons of energy this is not to sidestep accountability because I should be held accountable and I can do better and many things I can do but I think even the best intentioned have a hard time because our society is set up in such a way that we are nudged pushed towards environmentally destructive options these are cheaper convenient options usually sometimes the only option Diamond doesn’t really get into this concept of reforming corporations or the infrastructure and systems within our society I think this is a good book but if you are looking for a concise systems analysis text on the environmental issues we are facing and the earth’s capacity to sustain it I highly recommend Donna Meadows Limits to Growth 30 year edition This was my favorite uote from the book and I think it is very good and can be applied to how blinded our thinking can be including my own“The values to which people cling most stubbornly under inappropriate conditions are those values that were previously the source of their greatest triumphs”Oh and here is another good uote Diamond touches on this concept and it is pertinent to many problems elites being insulated from the problems they create It is often elitescorporations who extract wealth then hightail it out of there with no conseuences for their actionsenvironmental destruction letting other people deal with the destruction or messes they create while elites pocket all the This uote is about the insulation of elites on the consumption side of things but the extraction production side is important imo and I was glad to see Diamond explore that problem“In much of the rest of the world rich people live in gated communities and drink bottled water That's increasingly the case in Los Angeles where I come from So that wealthy people in much of the world are insulated from the conseuences of their actions

  10. says:

    5 star topic 1 for organization in the first half 3 for farcical political economy in the second half The Mediocre The first half surveys a handful of historical collapses and a few survivals; frankly I do not think there is need to give too much credit for a good choice of topic and fact gathering This topic deserves much higher expectations I am always impressed how we have standardized bad writing think “textbook” writing In this case we took end of civilization literally material somehow diluted it from the visceral senses of humansocial struggle vomited the remains onto a canvas smeared it absent mindedly to avoid insightful frameworks and spent 600 pages to watch it dry So a standard textbook treatment of an interesting topic nothing special at least it was accessible but this is just the better halfThe Farcical It is comical when enlightened minds from the great liberal institutions of higher education judging by the numerous prestigious science awards with Mr Diamond’s name on them put their intellect to use on modern social issues But frankly I expected something a bit critical from the Geography department; this isn’t Business or American International Relations after all The typical shits and giggles of a liberal analyzing environmental destruction in the modern world “Capitalism” is never even named while short term profit from reckless legally mandatory plundering is portrayed as irrational behavior because long term costs exceed profits for both the public and the plunderers Scintillating analysis Nothing on capitalism’s perfectly rational profit seeking behavior of externalizing costs where environment is an obvious candidate to take the burden of the costs as well as poor peoplecountries on this later Try The Corporation The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power Nothing on distinguishing experiential value from the market economy’s exchange value thus rampant commodification and waste although I would not be surprised if another liberal decides the solution to this is further expansion of market valueprivate property which Diamond hints in his portrayal of the “tragedy of the commons” Try Talking to My Daughter About the Economy or How Capitalism Works and How It Fails If my use of liberal confuses you I'm referring to liberal economics1 Elites like the Clintons and their patrons Oligarchs with friendlier rhetoric than reactionaries but still abide by the principle of one dollar one vote Refuses to acknowledge the dangers of accumulated wealth ie money makes power money makes money the profitability of warsimperialismdebt peonagenegative externalities etc2 The ideology of private accumulation ie those who developed the land deserve to own it I mean there's the whole genocidal displacement and imperialist destruction of competition to challenge the idea of development with But even if we accept development the serfs who were kicked off their land and forced into the labor market the plantation slaves and indentured coolies and today's global division of labor ie the backbone of industrializationproduction what sliver of the pie do they own? Meanwhile the 1% of majority shareholders financiers have earned their place primarily through inheritance and rely on the profits from capital gains unearned income property claims economic rent not wage labor income Try instead Facing the Anthropocene Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System Too Many People? Population Immigration and the Environmental Crisis There is a sentence on how executives are legally obligated to maximize profits immediately followed by placing the responsibility on the public to protest So a child’s perception of power structures got it But it gets worse Diamond’s portrayal of the modern world is that of independent nations Zero sense of the global division of labor and imperialism Literally uneual trade deals are blamed on “unsophisticated” poor countries making bad deals with sophisticated rich countries Enough Accessible intro to imperialism kicking away the ladder Bad Samaritans The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism Deeper dives Late Victorian Holocausts El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World The Darker Nations A People's History of the Third World Perilous Passage Mankind and the Global Ascendancy of Capital

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